"The big companies that make a profit in France have to pay the tax" promised Emmanuel Macron in his speech on Monday, December 10th. To achieve this goal, France intends to introduce a tax on the turnover of the giants of the web. This tax "should bring full year 500 million euros," promised Wednesday Bruno Le Maire at a hearing in the Senate. The Minister of Finance has not detailed the mechanism of this tax. However, the initial milling (taken over by the European Commission in March) imposed a turnover of 3%. This version applied to advertising revenues (Facebook, Google, Twitter …), linking (Airbnb, Uber …), but not to e-commerce (Amazon) or subscriptions (Netflix).
However, these amounts will be much higher than what they pay today. In fact, all the American giants of the web only declare to the French tax authorities a tiny fraction of their income generated in France, and thus pay him taxes on Lilliputian profits. Retail review.
Google: 14 million
In 2017, the French subsidiary (639 employees) reported to the French tax authorities a turnover of 325 million euros and recorded a tax expense on profits of 14 million euros.
In fact, the turnover actually achieved is much higher. according to the study PWC for the SRI (Syndicat des Régies Internet), the market for advertising on search engines (almost 90% dominated by Google) alone stands at 2 billion euros in 2017.
However, "Google will pay if there is a turnover tax that is implemented" in France or the European Union, said Wednesday the director general of Google France, Sébastien Missoffe at a breakfast of the Association of Economic and Financial Journalists (Ajef).
Apple: 19 million
The apple firm owns two subsidiaries in France. Moon, Apple France SARL (181 employees), is in charge of marketing. For the financial year ending at the end of September 2017, it reported a turnover of 89 million euros and a tax expense of 14.5 million. The other, Apple Retail France EURL (2,112 employees), operates the Apple Stores. For the financial year ending at the end of September 2017, it reported a turnover of 711 million euros and a tax expense of 4.6 million euros.
A misery compared to the turnover actually achieved in France. The latter can be estimated by the number of devices sold in France and the average price of a device in the world (which appears in Apple's accounts). Thus, over the year ended September 2018, 4.2 million iPhones were sold in France, with an average price of 766 dollars, a total of 3.2 billion dollars. Similarly, 793,000 iPads were sold at an average price of $ 432, or $ 342 million. Finally, 617,000 Macs were sold at an average price of $ 1,400, or $ 863 million. In total, sales in France can therefore be estimated at 4.4 billion dollars, or 3.9 billion euros. And again, this estimate does not take into account the sale of services (Apple Music …).
Facebook: 1.9 million
In 2017, the French subsidiary of Facebook (108 employees) reported a turnover of 56 million euros and a tax expense of 1.9 million euros. In reality, the turnover achieved in France is much higher. Indeed, the social network indicates to have in France 39 million registered, of which 35 million active each month. At the same time, he says in his accounts that in 2017, a European user has returned 27.41 dollars on average, or 24.2 euros. The turnover can therefore be estimated between 850 and 950 million euros.
But the social network has promised to make amends. "We have put in place a sales structure in countries where we have an office to support advertising sales to local advertisers, which means that all advertiser revenues that will be supported by our local teams will be recorded locally. in this country.This new structure applies to France.We began the implementation of this new structure in France gradually beginning of 2018, "said a spokeswoman. Such an approach has been applied in Great Britain since 2016.
Amazon: 8 million euros (logistics activity)
The Seattle-based giant owns at least eight companies in France, employing a total of 5,500 jobs on permanent contracts, each earning tens of millions of euros in turnover, with the exception ofAmazon France SAS Logistics (3,838 employees), which ensures deliveries. In 2017, the latter reported a turnover of 380 million euros and a tax expense of 8 million euros.
Amazon has also set up in France six branches of Luxembourg companies. The main of them is a branch of the Luxembourg company Amazon EU SARL. "All sales, charges, profits and taxes related to the retail business are now accounted for in France" via this branch, says a spokesman.
In total, Amazon EU SARL achieved sales of € 24.9 billion in 2017, but the breakdown by country is not reported. According to a report by Syndex revealed by Capital, the French branch reportedly declared a billion euros in sales in 2015. Either very far from estimates: Kantar figure thus to 5.7 billion euros the turnover actually achieved in 2017.
Twitter: 0.3 million euros
For 2017, the French subsidiary (32 employees) reported a turnover of 12.3 million euros and a tax expense of 285,810 euros.
Here again, it is epsilonous compared to the income actually earned. according to Tiz agency, the network has 10.3 million users in France. But by dividing the global turnover (2.4 billion dollars in 2017) by the number of active users per month (330 million worldwide at the end of 2017), we know the average turnover per user and per year: 7.45 dollars, or 6.6 euros. The actual turnover in France can therefore be estimated at nearly 70 million euros.
Netflix: 0 euro
The video-on-demand service does not have a subsidiary in France, but has promised to open one. Waiting, Netflix this year paid € 3 million to the CNC (National Film Center) for the video tax (2% of turnover) which now applies to services established outside France.
The turnover actually achieved can be estimated at between 315 and 385 million euros. Indeed, according to Release, the Californian has 3.5 million customers in France. And according Parks Associates, the average price paid corresponds to the subscription to 10.99 euros TTC. Removing the VAT at 20% results in 385 million euros of turnover. If we start from the average bill of Netflix customers outside the United States (7.46 euros in 2017), we then achieve a turnover of 315 million euros.
Uber: 1.4 million euros
In 2017, the French subsidiary ofUber (which employs only 87 direct employees) reported a turnover of 52 million euros and a tax expense of 1.4 million.
The actual turnover can be estimated at more than 240 million euros. Indeed, Uber claims in France 20,000 drivers. And each driver would achieve on average 60,000 euros of turnover per year, according to the chained Duck. For its part, a study realized by the BCG for Uber figure between 67,200 and 78,800 the annual turnover of a full-time driver, who retains 25% after taxes and repayments to Uber.